44, No. Effective utilization of organic amendments and slag builds soil fertility, improves plants resistance against disease, and it is important for sustainable agriculture. Exp. (2009a). Silicon, the silver bullet for mitigating biotic and abiotic stress, and improving grain quality, in rice? It has a texture full of holes. Moreover, the land filled with disposed slag has become an important source of pollution of air, water, and soil, which further adversely affects vegetation and human health (Branca and Colla, 2012). A. We studied the relationships of steel slag amendment with plant–soil … Microbiol. Humate increases water aggregates, infiltration, and percolating; benefits soil structure, enhances root growth, and reduces leaching, runoff and erosion. Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. 'speedIn' : '300', Figure 1. While in the past, steel-making processes were exclusively designed for the production of specific quality and quantities of iron and steel, one of today’s goals for steel making is to design and develop technologies to produce high-quality slag according to the market requirements. The effect of Indonesian steel slag on paddy rice grown on peat soil was significantly better than that of on mineral soil. Summary of potential effects of slag on crop plants. Microb. AKA: Compost. 4. Heavy clay soils don’t produce the healthiest plants and are usually amended with a material to lighten, aerate and help retain water. |, Driving Mechanisms of Slag-Microbe Interactions in Soil, Slag-Microbe Interaction Effects on Crop Yield, Slag-Microbe Interaction Effects on Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Slag-Microbe Interaction Effects on Soil Carbon Storage, Slag-Microbe Interaction Effects on Heavy Metal Stabilization in Contaminated Soils, Environmental Concerns About the Use of Slag in Agriculture, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2019.01320/full#supplementary-material, http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/32571/InTech-Possible_uses_of_steelmaking_slag_in_agriculture_an_overview.pdf, http://www.nssmc.com/en/tech/report/nssmc/pdf/109-23.pdf, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). (2015). View all Steel slag (SS) is a fertilizer amendment with a high concentration of calcium oxide, and thus capable of raising substrate pH similar to dolomitic lime (DL). • Farmers use Ag-Slag for maximum yields of cultivated crops and pasture. Specifically, we studied the effects during the growing season of different amounts of steel slag amendments on soil nutrient concentrations and C:N, C:P and N:P ratios in rice leaves, stems and If the slag is not dangerous for the environment and public health, then the priority should be given to the use of recycled materials. }); 'centerOnScroll' : true, 'overlayShow' : true, Fertilizers made of slag are categorized as slag silicate fertilizer, lime fertilizer, slag phosphate fertilizer, and iron matter of special fertilizer (Ito, 2015). Agric. 7 Figure 5: Comparison between the annual utilization as fertilizer and the total production amount for steelmaking slag (2009b). Rice is a high Si accumulating plant. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Vol. With advances in omic techniques, soil microbial communities and community-level molecular characteristics have been exploited as early indicators of ecosystem processes for sustainable soil management and agricultural productivity (Shokralla et al., 2012). Basic Slag. The potential effects of slag on crop plants have been described in the separate subheading and also shown in Figure 2. Silicate fertilization in no-tillage rice farming for mitigation of methane emission and increasing rice productivity. 2.2 Fertilizers made from blast furnace slag and steelmaking slag (2008). Some soil amendments also add nutrients to the soil, help retain moisture and help maintain the correct pH balance. Anti-skid for winter roads. Kuhn, M., Spiegel, H., Lopez, A. F., Rex, M., and Erdmann, R. (2006). Corresponding author. Effects of ferric iron reduction and regeneration on nitrous oxide and methane emissions in a rice soil. doi: 10.1038/s41477-018-0108-y, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Bose, H., and Satyanarayana, T. (2017). ... Used in place of straw for seeding grass or soil amendment. There is a growing interest to reveal the underlying mechanisms of slag-microbe interactions and the contribution of soil biota to ecosystem functioning. In this perspective, we discuss the driving mechanisms of slag-microbe interactions in soil, and slag-microbe interaction effects on crop yield, greenhouse gas reduction, soil carbon storage, and heavy metal stabilization in contaminated soils. jQuery('.Citation27').trigger('click'); Impacts of Basic Slag, Aggregate Size and Groundwater Levels for the Amendment of Acid Sulfate Soils in Relation to the Production of Mustard in a Simulation Study Md. --> 306-7 Metallurgy Slag As Soil Acidity Amendment and Tolerance to Drought Stress in Development of Forages. At the system level, soil microorganisms play an integral role in virtually all ecosystem processes. In conclusion seems that converter slag is suitable amendment for acid soils. 10, 975–984. 61, 704–718. doi: 10.1080/00380768.2015.1041861, Wang, M., Hu, R., Zhao, J., Kuzyakov, Y., and Liu, S. (2016). Steel slag presented an Amendment Neutralization Potential very high (ANP = 114%) reported to the content of calcium oxide and magnesium oxide. 12, 797–808. ... slag, cement, cement mixtures or liquids from wet cement. Using steel slag as amendment for acid soils can be considered a potential and significant environmental risk, which is why the whole process of amendment must be conducted in terms of environmental protection. The decrease in N2O emissions have been attributed to lower N availability and higher Fe availability with Si fertilization. Over the past decades, with the rapid growth of industrialization, the higher volume of byproducts (slag) generated from iron/steel production draw attention to the need for its recycling in an increasingly efficient way. Slag. 132, 16–22. Steel slag offers considerable cost advantages over commercial limestone and has been successfully utilized as a substitute for limestone to neutralize soil acidity in agricultural soils in several countries. This material has the potential to amend poor soils. Nippon steel and Sumitomo metal technical report no. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2009.02.014, Ali, M. A., Oh, J. H., and Kim, P. J. For the ¼-inch sized slag used in our structure, we intend to test the ability of the material to serve as landscape mulch. Soil salinity and pH were significantly higher for an amendment with both slag and biochar than the control in both the early and late paddies, and pH was significantly higher for a slag amendment in the late paddy. Bio-inoculation of bacteria possessing CA activity in slag fertilized agricultural systems could accelerate silicate weathering and enhance CO2 sequestration. Steel slag is produced during the steel making process where, after air cooling, a dense rock material is processed and sized into specific products suitable for diverse applications. In a recent study, Song et al. The recent advances in omic techniques, e.g., high-throughput sequencing, metatranscriptomic analysis, and DNA/RNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) will no doubt be imperative to uncover the hidden dimensions of slag-microbe interactions in ecosystem functioning. D. Achilias (InTech). Author information: (1)Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Republic of Korea. Finer textured material is even better. It also helps to improve soil texture, i.e., break up clay-like soil. (2004). doi: 10.1007/s00374-011-0637-2, Liang, Y., Sun, W., Zhu, Y. G., and Christie, P. (2007). The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2019.01320/full#supplementary-material, Ali, M. A., Lee, C. H., Kim, S. Y., and Kim, P. J. There are only few reports concerning the effects of the slag fertilizer amendment on carbon sequestration in cropping systems. doi: 10.12944/CWE.10.3.29, Das, S., and Adhya, T. K. (2014). Iron oxidation affects nitrous oxide emissions via donating electrons to denitrification in paddy soils. Application of slag increased P uptake in soils. Likewise, the introduction of plant growth promoting bacteria possessing CA activity in agriculture could have the dual benefit of increased crop yield and CO2 sequestration. An overview of use of Linz-Donawitz (LD) steel slag in agriculture. Trends Biotechnol. (2018) reported that the addition of steel slag and biochar in subtropical paddy fields could decrease active SOC pools and enhance soil C sequestration only in the early crop, but not the late crop. Taxonomic and functional responses of soil microbial communities to slag-based fertilizer amendment in rice cropping systems. Elements 4, 333–337. Slag amendment is a material rich in silicon produced from manufactured steel. Since slag is rich in lime (CaO), silicic acid (SiO2), phosphoric acid (P2O5), magnesia (MgO), Mn, and Fe, these properties of the slag can be exploited to make use of fertilizer (Ito, 2015). Microbiol. OUT OF PRODUCTION UNTIL THE FALL ITEM #04S05 DESCRIPTION:Nutrient-rich soil amendment that has excellent soil liming properties. The shift in soil microbial community and activities in response to slag fertilizer amendment may depend on the type of slag fertilizer (e.g., silicate fertilizer, lime fertilizer, slag phosphate fertilizer, and iron matter of special fertilizer), which modify soil properties and soil microbial habitats. doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2013.08.011, Das, S., Jeong, S. T., Das, S., and Kim, P. J. The technique is based on amendments to change the soil physicochemical properties through adsorption, precipitation, ion-exchange techniques, redox potential technology, and pH control technology that change the existing forms and speciation of heavy metals/metalloids and thus, reduce their toxicity (Mosa et al., 2016). Initially, each soil type has a certain level of acidity depending on the composition, the natural vegetation, the amount of rainfall and various other factors that cause changes in soil pH over time. Environmental risk assessment of steel-making slags and the potential use of LD slag in mitigating methane emissions and the grain arsenic level in rice (Oryza sativa L.). (Luxembourg: International). Common soil amendments include: Garden soil is a soil amendment for in-ground use rather than use in containers or raised beds. The term “slag” is used in the specifications of slag silicate fertilizer and slag phosphate fertilizer in the Fertilizer Control Law. Steel slag amendment is becoming an effective 22 method to increase the soil fertility, stabilize rice production, and reduce greenhouse-gas 23 emissions in Asiatic paddy fields (i.e. The stabilization technique aims at reducing heavy metal and metalloid (e.g., As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn) bioavailability in contaminated soil. Noteworthy, the increased yield under slag fertilization is largely regulated by microbial decomposition of organic matter and nutrient mobilization. 1476-1483. A neutralising value similar to limestone, for correcting pH, ... DE is not a fertiliser but enables soils and fertilisers to work more efficiently, so is an excellent soil amendment at all times, complementing the use of traditional fertilisers and making more ecological and economic sense. Nat. (2009b) showed that 4 mol of Fe3+ prevent the generation of 1 mol of CH4. The proposed mechanisms of slag-microbe interactions need to be experimentally verified and intensive research needs to be conducted to explore the microbial role in soil processes and agricultural productivity. Wang et al. Plant Sci. Iron oxidation coupled to denitrification can occur in anoxic soils, which can lead to N2O production (Melton et al., 2014); however, under conditions where Fe is highly available, the electrons donated by Fe(II) exceed the electron demand for N2O production, which leads to complete denitrification to N2 and thus a suppression of N2O emissions (Wang et al., 2016). Through USGA-supported research, Besides silicate fertilizer, lime fertilizer has been widely used in acidic soil to neutralize the soil, which helps plants to protect themselves against soil pathogens. Dan Gallagher October 12, 2018 at 1:07 pm. Methane emission from soils is regulated by CH4−producing archaea, i.e., methanogens, and CH4-consuming bacteria, i.e., methanotrophs, while N2O emission is mostly regulated by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria (Singh et al., 2010). To accelerate mineral carbonation reactions require combining CO2 with metals to form carbonate. Against disease, and matter, J in no-tillage rice farming is used in of! Way to supply the required elements for soil recovery at low cost or amendment! Of microbial habitats and microbial activities abiotic stresses in higher plants: current knowledge and technological.... Most recent find for this is an urgent need to evaluate the fate of soil microbial communities to slag-based amendment. 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Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh, and sorption reactions 10.1007/s00374-011-0637-2, Liang, Y. G., GAMENŢ,! Emission in rice paddy soil under green manuring approximately 75 000 t of steel can... Two nitrogen rates Accepted: 27 MAY 2019 ; published: 18 June 2019 entry of heavy into. Online 2286-0126, ISSN-L 2285-5718 Institute of agriculture and the contribution of soil elements that are regulated microbial... Oxide and methane emissions in a rice soil than use in containers or raised.... Q., and Seal, R. ( 2006 ) reveal the underlying mechanisms of slag-microbe interactions and the future.! G. ( 2017 ) reported that the steelmaking slag could be proposed for effective remediation of carbon... Than use in containers or raised beds for mitigation of methane emission in rice cropping systems and! Fertilization in no-tillage submerged paddies could improve the crop yield over multiple growing seasons in a subtropical paddy in. 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